Charles Kettering, General Motors VP, urged GM to consider a complete switch from petroleum to alcohol.
In the early 1920s, U.S. ethanol production was approximately 100 MGY. Noting its anti-knock properties, along with the fact that it was clean and renewable, Kettering viewed ethanol as a means to free the internal-combustion engine from petroleum dependence. Interestingly, by the mid-1920s, every industrialized nation except the U.S. used gasoline blended with ethanol. France, Germany, and Brazil even mandated its use.